In many ways, the Utica Shale play caught Ohio off guard. The state became a main focus of the oil and gas industry almost overnight. Ohio responded by updating its oil and gas laws, including major overhauls resulting from Senate bills 165 in 2010 and 315 in 2012. But in some cases, operators and regulatory agencies are still applying old law that was written with conventional drilling methods in mind. In this post, part 3 of our series on compelled participation (see Part 1 and Part 2), we look at unitization — one of these old laws being put to new use.
What Is Unitization?
Unitization is the creation or designation of a contiguous area of land, called a “unit,” for the efficient development of the oil and gas resources underlying that land. Units can be formed by order of the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR), on application from an operator. Units also can be formed voluntarily by consent of interest owners, usually owners of the leasehold. Inevitably, the land sought to be unitized — really the geologic formation below the surface — is subject to a patchwork of different ownership interests. The operator attempts to negotiate lease rights with all such land or mineral rights owners, but it is often the case that the operator cannot reach an agreement with all of them. When an operator has the consent of all but a small portion of the land for a unit, Ohio law allows the operator to apply for ODNR to compel the non-consenting interest owners to join the unit.
Continue Reading Unitization in Ohio: Compelled Participation in the New Context of the Utica Shale